Not all of the facts of Celeborn's life are known. There are also different stories of the same events, as almost all of Galadriel and Celeborn's personal history remained in unpublished manuscripts of Christopher Tolkien. So little can be said about the personality of the character. But what we can tell for sure is that Celeborn is quick thinking, wise and swift to act. We also may see that he is a warrior... But let start from the beginning.
The name Celeborn means silver tree in Sindarin. Celeborn is the son of Galadhon, a Sindarin (meaning Grey People) prince from Doriath. Doriath is a hidden kingdom in Beleriand. In the early First Age a Nordin princess Galadriel and her brother Finrod visit Doriath. There she meets Celeborn. Celeborn and Galadriel fall in love immediately. They are wedded and Celeborn eventually becomes Lord of Lorien.
The couple lives in Beleriand until the end of the First Age. In the Wars of Beleriand the region is ruined. So Celeborn with his wife dwell in Lindon, on the western part of the Blue Mountains, Harlidon. Most of the Elves of Harlindon are Sindarian. Thats why Celeborn rules the fief of Harlidon under the High King Gil-Galad.
In the beginning of the Second Age Celeborn and Galadriel live near Lake Evendin. Their daughter Celebrian may be born during this time.
Some years after Celeborn and Galadriel journey to the realm of Erigon, at the Western foot of the Misty Mountains. The realm is ruled by Celebrimbor. Erigon allies with the Dwarves of Khazad-Dum. Though, Celeborn doesnt trust Dwarves, the couple lives there for a time.
In 1697 Sauron attacks Erigon. Celeborn makes a sortie to meet the vanguard of Saurons army. Celeborn is able to drive the enemy long enough to join forces with Elrond. But Sauron defeats Erigon. Celebrimbor is killed. Celeborn and Erlond manage to escape to a dell.
After that Celeborn and Galadriel live for some time in Lorinand. Celeborn helps strengthen Silven Elves defenses against Sauron. When the King of Lorinand drowns in the Bay of Belfalas, Celeborn and Galadriel take the title of Lord and Lady of Lothlorian. Together they build Caras Galadhon, the city and fortress of Galathrim of Lothlorien. On the top of the hill of the city there is the greatest tree, where is the house of Celeborn and Galadriel. On two chairs beneath the bole of the tree and canopied by a living bough there sat, side by side, Celeborn and Galadriel. Very tall they were, and the Lady no less tall than the Lord; and they were grave and beautiful. They were clad wholly in white; and the hair of the Lady was of deep gold, and the hair of the Lord Celeborn was of silver long and bright; but no sign of age was upon them, unless it were in the depths of their eyes; for these were keen as lances in the starlight, and yet profound, the wells of deep memory. Its the most gorgeous days of Lothlorien.
In the Third Age 2463 the White Council is formed. Celeborn and his wife Galadriel become its members.
In January of 3019 Celeborn receives The Fellowship of the Ring. The Fellowship are on the quest to destroy the One Ring. Its for the first time when Celeborn welcomes Gimli, despite his distrust of Dwarves. Celeborn promises to help the Fellowship in any way he can. He offers them boats to ease the journey down the Anduin.
On February 16 the Fellowship leave Lothlorien, but before the departure Celeborn and Galadriel give them presents. Celeborn advises them how to navigate in the Great River.
On March Celeborn repulses three orcs of Dol Guldur attacks on Lothlorien. After the Distruction of the One Ring and Saurons defeat, Celeborn leads a force across the Anduin and captures Dol Guldur, that is in Mirkwood, on March 28. Dol Guldur is finally destroyed and cleansed.
In April Celeborn meets the King of the Woodland realm Thranduil. They rename Mirkwood into the Wood of Greanleaves, and divide it into three parts. Thranduil takes the northen region, the central part is given to the Beornings and the Woodmen, and the southern region passes to Celeborn and becomes known as East Lorien.
Celeborn and his wife accompany their granddaughter Arwen to Minas Tirith, where she and Aragon are married. Celeborn and Galadriel journey to Rohan and attend the funeral of King Theodon.
In 3021 Celeborn accompanies Galadriel to the Sea. Galadroel departs for the Undying Lands while Celeborn returns to Lothlorien. But his life is no longer filled with the light as it was before. He begins to grow weary. His people continue to pass over the Sea into Undying Lands.
Eventually, Celeborn sails for the Undying Lands to his wife and daughter. It is said that with him went the last living memory of the Elder Days in Middle-earth.
One may ask “Why didn’t Celeborn sail with Galadriel? What kind of man could abandon his wife?” Celeborn is too conservatine. He doesn’t like any changes. He likes his life in Lothlorien and it was a kind of self-deception thinking that the life would be the same in Lothlorien without Galadriel. But it isn’t. Celeborn loves Galadriel. At last he understands that not a place he lives in makes him happy, but a person he lives with.